heograpiya

Heograpiya ang tawag sa agham ng mga lokasyon ng mundo. Nakapokus ito sa distribusyon ng likas na yaman at mga tao sa ibabaw ng lupa.

Ang salitang heograpiya ay mula sa salitang Kastilang geografía. Nag-ugat ito sa mga salitang Griyegong gi (‘daigdig’) at grafein (‘isulat’ o ‘ilarawan’).

 

Ang heograpiya ay isang siyensa tungo sa pagbabahagi (distribution) at pagsasaayos (arrangement) sa mga elementong matatagpuan sa ibabaw ng mundo.

Bukod dito, ito rin ay isang pagaaral tungkol sa mundo; ang mga katangian nito; ang pagsisimula ng buhay, kasama ang buhay ng tao at aktibidades ng tao.

Kasaysayan- ito ay tumutukoy sa naganap noong unang panahon. Mahalaga ito sa atin dahil malalaman natin kung ano ang nangyari noong unang panahon.

Ang kasaysayan ay isang mahalagang pangyayari sa nakaraan na nakaapekto sa bawat buhay ng tao.

Kasaysayan- ito ang ulat o salaysay ng mga tunay na pangyayaring naganap sa iba’t-ibang panahon sa isang lahi o bansa.

Kultura-Katawagang nangangahulugang kabuuan ng mga tradisyon,paniniwala,batas at iba pang ugaling natutuhan at nakuha ng ibang tao bilang kasapi ng pamayanan.

 Ang kultura o kalinangán sa pangkalahatan ay tumutukoy sa aktibidad ng sangkatauhan. Iba’t iba ang kahulugan ng kultura na sumasalamin sa iba’t ibang mga teoriya sa kaunawaan, o sukatan sa pagpapahalaga, sa aktibidad ng sangkatauhan.

Ang sibilisasyon ay ang pamumuhay sa lungsod. Ito ay estado ng lipunan kung saan may sariling historical at cultural na pagkakaisa o unity

 

Ang Teritoryo ay nasasakupang lupa ng isang lugar o bansa.

 

 

Ang pamahalaan ay isang organisasyon na may kapangyarihan na gumawa at magpatupad ng batas sa isang nasasakupang teritoryo. Maraming kahulugan kung ano ang binubuo ng isang pamahalaan.

Nabigyan ng kahulugan ang pamahalaan bilang ang makapangyarihang braso na gumamawa ng pasya sa estado. Nabigyan ng kahulugan ang huli (ni Max Weber, isang ekonomistang pampolitika at sa bandang huli pilosopiyang pampolitika) bilang isang organisasyon na hinahawak ang monopolyo sa lehitimong paggamit ng dahas sa loob ng kanyang nasasakupan. Kung titignan sa maka-etikang termino, bukas sa usapin ang kahulugan ng “lehitimo”, at nangangahulugan na kinukunsidera na isang estado para sa mga tagataguyod ang organisasyon ngunit di sa mga nagpapababa ng dangal nito. Binibigyan ng kahulugan ng ilan ang “lehitimo” bilang pagsangkot sa aktibo at walang kibong suporta ng nakakarami sa populasyon, i.e., ang kawalan ng digmaang sibil. (Hindi isang estado ang isang entidad na binabahagi ang kapangyarihan ng militar/pulis kasama ang malayang milisya at mandarambong. Maaaring “di nagtagumpay na estado.”) Pinapalakas ng maka-demokratikong pagkontrol sa pamahalaan – at sa ganitong paraan ang estado – ang pagiging lehitimo nito.

Maaari din na ang kahulugan ng pamahalaan bilang isang pampolitika na pamamaraan ng paglikha at pagpapatupad ng batas; kadalasan sa pamamagitan ng byurukrasyang herarkiya. Sa ganitong kahulugan, hindi inaayunan bilang isang pamahalaan ang isang purong despotikong organisasyon na kinokontrol ang isang nasasakupan na walang sinasaad na batas.

 

 

Ang lungsod ng Valenzuela ay isa sa mga lungsod at mga munisipalidad na binubuo ng Kalakhang Maynila sa Pilipinas. May tinatayang mga 500,000 mga residente ang lungsod at pangunahing industriyal at residensyal na suburb ng Maynila. Dumadaan ang North Luzon Expressway sa lungsod at palabas ng Kalakhang Maynila patungong lalawigan ng Bulacan.

May lawak na 46 kilometro kuadrado ang Lungsod ng Valenzuela. Napapaligiran ito ng Lungsod Quezon at hilagang Lungsod ng Kalookan sa silangan, Lungsod ng Malabon at katimogang Lungsod ng Kalookan sa timog, Obando sa Bulacan sa kanluran, at Meycauayan, sa Bulacan din, sa hilaga.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valenzuela City

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City of Valenzuela
Lungsod ng Valenzuela


Seal

 

Nickname: The Vibrant City

Motto: Valenzuela, May Disiplina

Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Valenzuela City Coordinates: 14°41′N 120°58′E

Country


 Philippines

Region

National Capital Region

Province

none (It is formerly on Bulacan province until 1975)

Districts

1st and 2nd districts of Valenzuela City

Barangays

32

Incorporated (town)

1623

Incorporated (city)

December 30, 1998

Government

 - Mayor

Sherwin T. Gatchalian (2007-2010; (NPC)

 - Vice Mayor

Eric Martinez (2007-2010;(NPC/Lakas-CMD)

Area

 - Total

47.0 km² (18.1 sq mi)

Population (2000)

 - Total

485,433

Time zone

PST (UTC+8)

ZIP code

1440 (Valenzuela City Post Office)

Area code(s)

02

Website: Official Website of Valenzuela City

The City of Valenzuela (Filipino: Lungsod ng Valenzuela) is one of the cities and municipalities in the Philippines that make up Metro Manila. The city has approximately 500,000 residents and is primarily an industrial and residential suburb of Manila. The North Luzon Expressway passes through the city and out of Metro Manila into the province of Bulacan.

Valenzuela has a land area of approximately 45 square kilometers. It is bordered by Quezon City and northern Caloocan City to the east, by Malabon City and southern Caloocan City to the south, by Obando in Bulacan to the west, and Meycauayan City, also in Bulacan, to the north.

Since becoming a city in 1998, Valenzuela’s economy has flourished and its population has swelled significantly.

[edit] History

Valenzuela means “little Valencia” in Spanish, and is also the surname Dr. Pio Valenzuela, a Filipino physician and patriot who was among the leaders of the Katipunan that started the Philippine Revolution against Spain after which the city was named.

Valenzuela City was originally known as Polo, and established as an independent town of the province of Bulacan in 1623. Polo was an idyllic center of agriculture and fishery carved from the town of Meycauayan, Bulacan. The town acquired its independence through the efforts of Father Juan Taranco and Don Juan Monsod.

The chapel of San Diego de Alcala, and its now famous belfry, was completed in 1632 and became the town’s center that stood witness to several battles during the Spanish, American and Japanese occupations.

On July 21, 1960, President Diosdado Macapagal signed Executive Order No. 401, which led to the creation of the Municipality of Valenzuela, in honor of Dr. Pio Valenzuela, a significant personality in Philippine history who was born here. In [1]September 11, 1963, another order signed by President Macapagal which unites the municipalities of Polo and Valenzuela under a one united government, called Municipality of Valenzuela.

Because of the rapid growth of the Greater Manila Area in terms of population, as well as social and economic requirements in the early seventies, and the municipality’s proximity to the area, Presidential Decree Number 824 was issued on November 7, 1975, creating the Metropolitan Manila Commission and separating the Municipality of Valenzuela from the Province of Bulacan.

As part of the Greater Manila Area, The social and political upheavals of the seventies and early eighties did not dampen the pulsating economy of the municipality. It was, in fact, a golden age in the history and culture of Valenzuela when businesses and industries in the municipality grew rapidly.

In 1986, a new socio-political order swept the country. The four days of the People Power Revolution were marked by an outpouring of love, anger, hysteria and courage by a people fighting for change and renewal. The restoration of democracy in the country also brought about a paradigm shift in national and local government relations.

The passage of the Local Government Code in 1991 unlocked and marshalled the repressed energies of local communities. The Local Government Code provides genuine and meaningful autonomy to enable local governments to attain their fullest development as self-reliant communities. It was during this time that Valenzuela began charting its own destiny and moved the local economy in the direction it chose.

From then on, Valenzuela had to cope with rapid urbanization as part of the Greater Manila Area. It is considered as a vital link between the National Capital Region and Northern Luzon. And 23 years after its separation from Bulacan and 375 years after its founding, On February 14, 1998, then President Fidel Ramos signed Republic Act No. 8526, converting the Municipality of Valenzuela under the administration of Mayor Bobbit L. Carlos into a highly urbanized city, making Valenzuela the 12th city in Metro Manila and the 83rd in the Philippines.

[edit] Valenzuela as a gateway

An eight-lane section of the expressway, this was taken in Valenzuela City going northbound.

Two major highways traverse Valenzuela City – the MacArthur Highway and the North Luzon Expressway. The proximity of the North Luzon Expressway to the city center makes Valenzuela a northern gateway to Metro Manila and a choice location for business.

Public transportation within the city, like in most of the urban areas in the Philippines, is facilitated mostly using inexpensive jeepneys and buses. Tricycles are used for short distances, while Taxi cabs are used by the upper middle class to navigate any course.

[edit] Government

[edit] Mayors and Vice Mayors

Like other cities in the Philippines, Valenzuela City is governed by a Mayor and Vice Mayor who are elected to three-year terms. The Mayor is the executive head and leads the city’s departments in executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The Vice Mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 15 members: 6 Councilors from the First District, 6 Councilors from the Second District, the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation, representing the youth sector, and the President of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city’s policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions.

[edit] Mayors of Valenzuela City

*                   Marcelino `Mar’ G. Morelos, (June 28, 2008)-

*                   Sherwin `Win’ T. Gatchalian, (June 30, 2004)-(June 27, 2008)

*                   Jose Emmanuel `Bobbit’ L. Carlos,(June 30, 1995)-(June 30, 2004)

*                   Santiago `Santy’ De Guzman,(June 30, 1992)-(June 30, 1995)

[edit] Vice Mayors of Valenzuela City

*                   Katherine C. Pineda, (June 28, 2008)

*                   Eric Martinez ,(June 30, 2007)-(June 28, 2008)

*                   Antonio Espiritu ,(June 30, 2001)-(June 30, 2007)

*                   Ernesto De Guzman,(June 30, 1998)-(June 30, 2001)

*                   Evelyn Hernandez,(June 30, 1995)-(June 30, 1998)

*                   Jose Emmanuel Carlos,(June 30, 1992)-(June 30, 1995)

[edit] Districts and Barangays

Valenzuela is composed of 32 barangays which are grouped into two congressional districts, and two legislative districts. Legislative District 1 contains 23 barangays in the northern half of the city, while legislative District 2 occupies the 9 barangays in the southern portion of the city.

District 1*                   Arkong Bato

*                   Balangkas

*                   Bignay

*                   Bisig

*                   Canumay

*                   Coloong

*                   Dalandanan

*                   Isla

*                   Lawang Bato

*                   Lingunan

*                   Mabolo

*                   Malanday

*                   Malinta

*                   Palasan

*                   Pariancillo Villa

*                   Pasolo

*                   Poblacion

*                   Pulo

*                   Punturin

*                   Rincon

*                   Tagalag

*                   Veinte Reales

*                   Wawang Pulo

District 2*                   Gen. T. De Leon

*                   Karuhatan

*                   Bagbaguin

*                   Mapulang Lupa

*                   Marulas

*                   Maysan

*                   Parada

*                   Paso de Blas

*                   Ugong

[edit] RP’s ‘largest’ barangay hall

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, assisted by Valenzuela second district Congressman Atty. Magtanggol T. Gunigundo I, former Mayor Sherwin Gatchalian, former Vice Mayor Eric Martinez, and Barangay Maysan Chairman Enrique Urrutia, on May 15, 2008, inaugurated the “largest” P 27 million (3-storey building with a floor area of 3,000 square meters on a 936-square-meter lot) Barangay hall in the Philippines. The Maysan Barangay Complex (MBC) is built in the middle of the 253-hectare Barangay Maysan, Valenzuela City.[2]

[edit] Education

The city government prides itself in giving free education to its quality free education to its constituents through its primary, secondary and tertiary schools .

Valenzuela City has many colleges and universities, like the city-owned Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela and Valenzuela City Polytechnic College, even the Valenzuela City Science High School, created 2003. The city also is famous for its Dalandanan National High School, cradle of students that were winning at various regional and national competitions since its establishment on 1996. There are also privately-owned academic institutions include the Our Lady Of Fatima University, Children of Mary Immaculate College, Saint Jude Academy, Saint Louis College – Valenzuela, Our Lady of Lourdes College.

[edit] Health

Valenzuela City provides medical missions and free medical operations in the city. There are numerous hospitals in Valenzuela City , one of the public hospital in Valenzuela is Valenzuela City Emergency Hospital & Valenzuela City General Hospital . There are also privately owned Fatima Medical Center. Other private hospitals such as Calalang General Hospital and Santissimo Rosario General Hospital

[edit] VC Cares program

A health and social welfare service delivery system which promotes self-reliance within a caring society.The VC Cares Program is designed for individuals who are unable to provide for themselves health care and basic necessities or meet special emergency situations of need. While health care service and financial assistance are generally the forms of assistance given, these may be supplemented by other forms of assistance, as well as problem-solving and referral services. Appropriate referrals may be made to other agencies or institutions where complementary services may be obtained.

[edit] Shopping centers

On October 28, 2005 SM Supercenter Valenzuela was inaugurated. Other shopping sites such as Puregold Valenzuela, and the newly renovated South Supermarket, compete with the largest chain of malls in the Philippines.

SM Supercenter Valenzuela also build in this place located at Karuhatan

[edit] Banking

Almost all of the major commercial banks in the Philippines operate a branch in the city. Major banks was operated in the city of more than one branch. At this time, there are 50 banking institutions offer banking services to businesses and residents. Most of these are concentrated in Barangay Karuhatan, Gen. T. De Leon, Marulas and Malinta

[edit] Utilities and Communications

Valenzuela’s source of electricity is part of the Manila Electric Company or Meralco. Water supply for the city is supplied by the Maynilad Water. Valenzuela’s communication system is powered by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone company, Globe Telecom, Bayan Telecommunications Corporation (BayanTel) and others. Cellular network in the Philippines particularly the metropolitan areas is increasing rapidly together with the low cost of calls and text messaging. Such big companies that control the cellular networks in the Philippines and Valenzuela itself are Globe Telecom, Smart Communications (PLDT) and Sun Cellular from Digitel. Cable television access is provided by SkyCable, Home Cable and Global Destiny. Internet Digital Subscriber Line or DSL coverage is provided by PLDT, cable internet is serviced by Sky Cable’s ZPDee and Global Destiny. Wireless broadband is provided by Globeliness Broadband and Smart Communications.

[edit] Landmarks and attractions

Residence of Dr. Pio Valenzuela – Dr. Pio Valenzuela was part of the triumvirate, along with Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto, that composed the Katipunan, and was one of the founders of Ang Kalayaan — the official organ of the movement. He was born on July 11, 1869 in this house along Velilla Street in Barangay Pariancillo Villa.

Bell Tower of San Diego De Alcala Church – The Church of San Diego de Alcala was built in 1632 by the people of Polo. Residents were taken to forced labor to complete the church after the town gained its independence through Father Juan Taranco and Don Juan Monsod. The belfry and entrance arch, which are over four centuries old, are the only parts of the edifice that remain to this day. The main structure was destroyed by bombs during the Japanese occupation. Residents of Barangays Polo and Poblacion celebrate the Feast Day of San Diego de Alcala on the 12th of November every year.

Arkong Bato – Literally, Arkong Bato is an arch of stone along M.H Del Pilar Street, built by the Americans in 1910. The arch then marked the boundary between the provinces of Rizal and Bulacan.In the olden days, M.H Del Pilar was the primary road leading to Northern Luzon before MacArthur Highway was opened.

Museo ng Valenzuela -To date, it is in the 3rd phase of construction. The original museum of Valenzuela was the house where Dr. Pio Valenzuela, a hero in the struggle of freedom against Spain and in whose memory the old town of Polo was renamed, was born and saw the best years of his life. This same house was burned recently.

National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima -The National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima, the center of the Fatima apostolate in the country, was declared a tourist site in 1982 by the Deptartment of Tourism and a pilgrimage shrine this year by the Diocese of Malolos.

Valenzuela City Convention Center This is the center of performing arts of Valenzuela . This facility also caters to various events such as plays, concerts, shows, exhibits and seminars.

Valenzuela City Hall The city hall surrounding many city government agencies and offices, and open areas, and it was located in the heart of the city. It was built in 1967

Valenzuela City Government Center A One stop shop. Faster, more convenient service. Bigger, more comfortable taxpayer’s lounge. Located on a 2,227.5sq. meters lot along McArthur Highway, the three-storey building will house all revenue-generating offices such as the City Treasury and the Business Permits and Licensing Office (BPLO) The new taxpayers lounge will not have drawers and tables inside the offices.

There will be a Customer Complaints Desk to handle all queries such as assessment and billing. All complaints and questions received are logged by the Customer Complaints Action Officer, as well as the corresponding action taken on such complaints and or questions

[edit] Feast

MANO PO SAN ROQUE FESTIVAL May 12 | Valenzuela City

*                   Street dancing and procession along the city’s major thoroughfares in commemoration of the feast of San Roque, highlighting the customs and traditional celebration of the festival.

FEAST OF SAN DIEGO DE ALCALA November 12 | Poblacion, Valenzuela City

*                   Celebration of the feast of the oldest church in Valenzuela City, which includes annual boat racing, street dancing and different fabulous activities of the festival.

PUTONG POLO FESTIVAL November 12 | Polo, Valenzuela, Metro Manila

*                   As part of the San Diego de Alcala Feast Day, it is one of the unique food festival in the country which features the famous Putong Polo, the small but classy “kaka in” which was originally created in the town of Polo, Valenzuela.

 

[edit] Fiscal management

1.) Income

*                   The City Government posted higher income in 2005 with a total collection of P 1.245 Billion, against P 1.018 Billion in 2004. There is an increase of P 227 Million in income. This increase is a combined result of extensive tax collection efforts, vigorous information campaign, diligent tax mapping, and auction of real properties with long standing delinquencies.

2.) Savings

*                   The City Government generated an aggregate savings of P 117 Million in 2005, against only P 21 Million in 2004. This is the result of adopting cost-saving measures such as buying the cheapest supplies and materials without sacrificing quality and buying only things that are really needed.

[edit] Flood control program & clean and green projects

A.) Comprehensive and Effective Flood Control Program

*                   Road and drainage improvement

*                   De-clogging and de-silting of drainages, creeks and other waterways

*                   Repair and maintenance of dikes, floodgates and pumping stations

B.) Cleaning and Greening Program

*                   100% garbage collection efficiency

*                   Establishment of Task Force Disiplina

*                   Anti-littering campaign

*                   Fully operational City Pound and intensive animal-catching operations

*                   Implementation of the Cleanest Barangay Award

[edit] Infrastructures

*                   Construction of 4-storey building at Gen. T. De Leon National High School

*                   Construction of the new Valenzuela City Government Center

*                   Improvement of Museo Valenzuela

*                   Construction of two (2) bridges – Lingunan to Lawang Bato and Parada to Mapulang Lupa

*                   Repair of road and drainage improvement at M.H. del Pilar Rd.

*                   Asphalting of road and drainage improvement at Gen T. De Leon Rd

*                   Asphalting of road at Maysan Rd

*                   Rehabilitation of Mc Arthur Highway

[edit] Peace and order

*                   Donation of fourteen (14) patrol vehicles and nineteen (19) motorcycles to increase police visibility

*                   Donation of one hundred (100) units rechargeable flashlights (Maglite) for nightwatch patrol

*                   Donation of forty two (42) handheld radios

*                   Additional PhP 500.00 monthly allowance for police personnel

*                   Establishment of Police Community Precinct (PCP) 8 at Que Grande, Barangay Ugong

[edit] Sister city

*                   Bucheon, South Korea

 

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Pío Valenzuela
Born July 11, 1869
Polo, Bulacan
Died April 6, 1956
Polo, Bulacan
Nationality Filipino
Occupation Writer

Pío Valenzuela (July 11, 1869-April 6, 1956) was a Filipino physician and patriot who was among the leaders of the Katipunan that started the Philippine Revolution against Spain. Valenzuela City in northern Metro Manila was named after him.

He wrote his memoirs of the Philippine Revolution in the 1920s, but historians have since been wary of his autobiography because of some inconsistencies in his version of events, particularly about his meeting with Jose Rizal in Dapitan in 1896.

[edit] Early years

Valenzuela was born in Polo, Bulacan to Francisco Valenzuela and Lorenza Alejandrino, who both came from wealthy families. He studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran and at the University of Santo Tomas where he finished his licentiate in medicine in 1895.

He was still a medical student when he joined the Katipunan secret society that was founded by Andres Bonifacio on July 7, 1892. He became a close friend of Bonifacio and would eventually become the godfather of Bonifacio’s child by Gregoria de Jesus.

[edit] The revolutionary life

He was elected fiscal of the secret society in December 1895. He was inducted together with the other elected officials at Bonifacioís home on New Yearís Day in 1896.

Shortly after his induction, Valenzuela moved to San Nicolas district in Manila so he could supervise the publication of the secret society’s official organ. Valenzuela claimed in his memoirs that he was supposed to be the editor of the publication but Emilio Jacinto would eventually be the one to supervise its printing.

Valenzuela said he was the one who suggested the name Kalayaan (Freedom) for the publication. To mislead the Spanish authorities, he also suggested that they place the name of Marcelo H. del Pilar as editor and Yokohama, Japan as the place of publication.

Kalayaan’s first number, dated January 18, 1896, came out in March 1896 and consisted of a thousand copies which was distributed to Katipunan members all over the country. However, the publication only came out with one more issue because the Katipunan had already been uncovered by the Spanish authorities. He considered the publication of Kalayaan as the most important accomplishment of the secret chamber of the Katipunan, which he claimed consisted of himself, Bonifacio and Jacinto.

In a meeting of the secret chamber in July 1896, they decided to assassinate the Spanish Ausgustine friar who uncovered the Katipunan to the authorities, but they failed to accomplish the mission. Valenzuela also claimed that after the discovery of the Katipunan, he and Bonifacio distributed letters implicating wealthy Filipinos, who refused to extend financial assistance to the Katipunan.

He was a member of the committee that was tasked to smuggle arms for the Katipunan from Japan. He was also with Bonifacio, Jacinto and Procopio Bonifacio when they organized the Katipunan council in Cavite.

At the secret general meeting called by Bonifacio on the night of May 1, 1896 at Barrio Ugong in Pasig, Valenzuela presented to the body a proposal to solicit contributions to buy arms and munitions from Japan. The proposal was approved on condition that it first be approved by Jose Rizal, who was in exile in Dapitan in Mindanao.

Valenzuela was tasked to discuss the matter with Rizal and he left for Dapitan on June 15, 1896. However, Rizal told him that the revolution should not be started until sufficient arms had been secured and the support of the wealthy Filipinos had been won over.

When the Katipunan was discovered, he fled to Balintawak on August 20, 1896, but he later availed of an amnesty that the Spanish colonial government offered and he surrendered on September 1, 1896.

He was deported to Spain where he was tried and imprisoned in Madrid. He was later transferred to Málaga, Barcelona and then to a Spanish outpost in Africa. He was incarcerated for about two years.

[edit] Under the Americans

Upon his return to the Philippines in April 1899, he was again imprisoned by the Americans, who had just taken over the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. He was detained until September of that year.

Later, he Americans appointed him municipal president of his hometown of Polo and he served in that capacity from 1902 to 1919. He then served as governor of Bulacan from 1919 to 1925.

He wrote his memoirs after retiring from politics, or thirty years after the fact. He died in his hometown in the morning of April 6, 1956. He was married to Marciana Castro by whom he had seven children.

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